REPORT ON THE WORK OF THE GOVERNMENT
Delivered at the Fifth Session of the 13th National People’s Congress of the People’s Republic of China on March 5, 2022
Premier of the State Council
On behalf of the State Council, I will now report to you on the work of the government and ask for your deliberation and approval. I also ask members of the National Committee of the Chinese People’s Political Consultative Conference (CPPCC) for their comments.
- A Review of Our Work in 2021
Last year was a milestone in the history of the Communist Party of China (CPC) and our country. The CPC Central Committee with Comrade Xi Jinping at its core united and led the whole Party and Chinese people of all ethnic groups in accomplishing the following endeavors:
- We celebrated the centenary of the Communist Party of China;
- The 19th CPC Central Committee convened its sixth plenary session where a resolution on the Party’s major achievements and historical experience over the past century was adopted;
- We declared victory in the critical battle against poverty as envisaged; and
- We achieved the first centenary goal of building a moderately prosperous society in all respects on schedule and began a new journey toward the second centenary goal of building a modern socialist country in all respects.
Last year, facing complicated and challenging circumstances both in and outside of China, as well as many risks and challenges, all of us throughout the country worked hard as one. We responded to Covid-19 and pursued economic and social development in a well-coordinated way, accomplished the main targets and tasks for the year, got the 14th Five-Year Plan off to a good start, and once again secured new and major achievements in our country’s development.
– The economy continued to recover and grow. China’s gross domestic product (GDP) reached 114 trillion yuan, growing 8.1 percent. National fiscal revenue exceeded 20 trillion yuan, growing 10.7 percent. A total of 12.69 million urban jobs were added, and the average surveyed unemployment rate stood at 5.1 percent. The consumer price index (CPI) rose by 0.9 percent. A basic equilibrium was maintained in the balance of payments.
– China’s innovation capacity was strengthened. Our strategic science and technology capabilities were expanded at a faster pace. Major advances were registered in research on core technologies in key fields, and breakthroughs were made in manned spaceflight, Mars exploration, resource exploration, energy projects and other areas. Corporate spending on research and development grew by 15.5 percent. Integration of digital technology in the real economy was accelerated.
– The economic structure and regional development priorities were refined. Grain output reached a record high of 685 million metric tons. Value-added of the high-tech manufacturing sector grew by 18.2 percent, IT services and other producer services recorded rapid growth, and industrial chains became more resilient. Regional development strategies were well implemented, and new urbanization was steadily advanced.
– Reform and opening up were deepened. In key fields and sectors, a full range of major reforms were rolled out, and supply-side structural reform was deepened. New gains were made in the reform to streamline administration and delegate power, improve regulation, and upgrade services. The total number of market entities surpassed the 150-million mark. The Belt and Road Initiative saw steady high-quality development. China worked for the entry into force of the Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership Agreement. The total volume of trade in goods grew by 21.4 percent, and growth of utilized foreign investment was sustained.
– Ecological conservation was enhanced. Thanks to further steps taken to prevent and control pollution, the discharge of major pollutants continued to fall and the average concentration of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) dropped by 9.1 percent in cities at and above the prefecture level. The first group of national parks were officially established. Significant improvements were made in the quality of the environment.
– Living standards rose steadily. Per capita disposable income increased by 8.1 percent in real terms. Achievements in poverty alleviation were consolidated and further expanded. Inputs in basic elderly care, basic medical care, and social assistance were increased. New steps were taken in the reform and development of education. Renovations began on 56,000 old urban residential communities, benefiting close to 10 million households.
– Our gains in Covid-19 response were consolidated. Implementation of control measures became routine, and over 85 percent of the population received a full course of vaccination. Local outbreaks were suppressed in an effective and quick manner. By making these efforts, we ensured the health and safety of the people and maintained normal order in work and life.
Reflecting on the past year, we can see that our achievements did not come easily. While the economy continued to recover from major shocks including Covid-19, many new changes occurred in and outside of China, and the difficulty of keeping the economy running stably mounted. In the face of such difficulty, we fully implemented the decisions and plans of the Party Central Committee with Comrade Xi Jinping at its core, followed the guiding principles of the Central Economic Work Conference; applied the new development philosophy in full, in the right way, and in all fields of endeavor; took solid steps to ensure stability on six key fronts and security in six key areas*, and made cross- and counter-cyclical adjustments with macro policies. We thus effectively dealt with all risks and challenges that arose.
Our main work over the past year was as follows.
- We kept macro policy consistent and targeted and kept the major economic indicators within the appropriate range.
Our macro policies facilitated cross-cyclical adjustments and sustained the level of support necessary for economic recovery. We also took into account the need to leave ample policy space for meeting difficulties and challenges this year.
We established a regular mechanism to directly allocate budgetary funds to prefecture- and county-level governments and placed 2.8 trillion yuan of central government funding under this mechanism. We also improved the way local governments issue and use special-purpose bonds.
We implemented a prudent monetary policy to good effect and lowered required reserve ratios twice to facilitate the reduction of loan interest rates. We took well-considered steps to defuse local government debt risks and dealt prudently with major financial risks. We intensified policies to stabilize and expand employment, took solid measures to ensure employment for key groups like college graduates, and encouraged business startups and innovation. We took stronger steps to keep supply and prices of major commodities stable and to tackle supply shortages in coal and electric power.
Over the course of last year, all major macroeconomic indicators stayed in line with projected targets, the deficit-to-GDP ratio and macro leverage ratio decreased, and China’s economy remained one of the fastest-growing economies in the world.
- We refined and implemented policies for easing the difficulties of businesses and consolidated the foundation of economic recovery.
As over one hundred million market entities have given several hundred million people the opportunity to go into business or secure employment, we have continued with the supportive macro-policy roadmaps and approaches that have proved effective since the epidemic began.
Tax and fee reductions introduced last year totaled more than one trillion yuan. In addition, tax payments were postponed for micro, small and medium enterprises (MSMEs) in manufacturing as well as coal-fired power plants and heating-supply enterprises as a temporary measure. Tax and fee reductions have proved a direct and effective way of helping enterprises ease their difficulties. In reality, they also help nurture business growth and cultivate sources of tax revenue. Last year, revenue generated from taxpaying market entities registered since 2013 reached 4.76 trillion yuan.
We strengthened the capacity of railway, highway, aviation and maritime transportation as well as harbors. We boosted the credit supply to industries and enterprises severely affected by Covid-19. We continued policies for micro and small businesses to defer principal and interest repayments on loans and take out more collateral-free loans. Inclusive finance lending to micro and small business by financial institutions increased by 27.3 percent, with the figure rising to over 40 percent for large commercial banks, and overall financing costs of businesses dropped steadily.
- We deepened reform, expanded opening up, and continued to improve the business environment.
We worked harder to develop the underlying institutions for a market system, and pushed forward reforms to ensure production factors are allocated by the market. We continued to reduce the number of procedures and length of time it takes for enterprises to gain government approval. More government services were made available online. A package of successful practices in local reform were applied nationwide, and trials were conducted to improve the business environment.
We bolstered regulation and adopted new regulatory approaches, took action against business monopolies, and prevented the unregulated expansion of capital, thus ensuring fair market competition. We continued implementation of the three-year action plan for SOE reform and supported the healthy development of private businesses. The reform to delink industry associations and chambers of commerce from government was basically completed. The Beijing Stock Exchange and Guangzhou Futures Exchange were opened. Solid strides were made in reforms in agriculture, rural development, social programs, and ecological conservation.
We deepened practical cooperation to jointly advance the Belt and Road Initiative. Efforts to ensure stable performance in foreign trade and investment were intensified. We successfully hosted a number of major expos, including the China International Import Expo, the China Import and Export Fair, the China International Fair for Trade in Services, and the first China International Consumer Products Expo. Comprehensive trials for further opening up of the services sector were expanded to four more areas, and new measures for developing the Hainan Free Trade Port were adopted.
- We promoted innovation-driven development and stabilized industrial and supply chains.
We boosted the development of national laboratories and promoted implementation of major science and technology programs. We reformed and refined the management of central government funding for scientific and technological research, increased the proportion of indirect expenses for research projects, and gave institutes more decision-making power over their research.
We continued the additional tax deduction for R&D expenses and increased this deduction to cover 100 percent of such expenses for manufacturing enterprises. Intellectual property right protection was strengthened. Weak links in the industrial chains of key industries were reinforced and upgraded. Digital and smart technologies were adopted in traditional industries at a faster rate, and emerging industries maintained good momentum for development.
- We promoted coordinated development between urban and rural areas and between regions and improved the structure of the economy.
To ensure implementation of all major regional development strategies and the strategy for coordinated regional development, we rolled out new supporting measures and launched several major projects. Urbanization with the focus on county seats was promoted. To help bolster agricultural production, we ensured agricultural supplies and issued one-time subsidies totaling 20 billion yuan to grain growers.
We advanced rural revitalization and designated 160 key counties to receive assistance in pursuing rural revitalization. A five-year program to improve the rural living environment also got under way.
- We strengthened environmental protection and promoted sustainable development.
We consolidated our gains in keeping the skies blue, waters clear, and land pollution-free. We encouraged farmers to use chemical fertilizer and pesticide more efficiently and promoted the recycling of livestock and poultry waste. We continued major projects to protect and restore ecosystems, and fully enforced the ten-year fishing ban on the Yangtze River.
China’s installed capacity of renewable power exceeded one billion kilowatts. An action plan for peaking carbon emissions by 2030 was unveiled. The China Carbon Emission Trade Exchange was launched. We took active steps to respond to climate change.
- We worked to ensure and improve the people’s wellbeing and accelerated development of social programs.
We intensified efforts to shore up weak links in rural compulsory education, and increased subsidies in the nutrition improvement program for compulsory-education students in rural areas, benefiting over 37 million students. We reduced the homework load and eased the off-campus tutoring burden on students in compulsory education. We surpassed the targets set in the three-year enrollment expansion initiative for vocational colleges. The cap for government-subsidized student loans was raised by 4,000 yuan per person per year, benefiting over five million students.
The basic pension for retirees was increased. Benefits were raised for entitled groups. To improve assistance and support for those in need, the scope of the subsistence allowance scheme was expanded to include people with serious illness or severe disability from families just outside the margin of eligibility.
We reformed the system for disease prevention and control. Outpatient bills for more common illnesses and chronic diseases became reimbursable under the basic medical insurance scheme, and 60 percent of cross-provincial inpatient medical expenses were directly settled where they were incurred. We tightened up regulation and supervision of drugs and vaccines.
The three-child policy was implemented. Elderly services were improved. Government-subsidized rental housing was increased at a faster pace. We developed cultural programs and the cultural sector, and launched new cultural projects to benefit the public. A sound online environment was fostered.
We actively carried out public fitness activities. Chinese athletes achieved great success in the Olympic and Paralympic Games in Tokyo. And thanks to meticulous preparation, China has presented the world with a simple, safe, and splendid 2022 Winter Olympic Games. The Paralympic Games, which has just opened, will undoubtedly also be a great success.
- We made progress in building a rule of law government, developed new ways of conducting governance, and maintained social harmony and stability.
We submitted 10 legislative proposals to the Standing Committee of the National People’s Congress (NPC) for deliberation, and formulated or revised 15 sets of administrative regulations. We conscientiously handled the proposals of NPC deputies and CPPCC National Committee members. The Outline for Building a Law-Based Government (2021–2025) was promulgated. Audit-based oversight was enhanced. The State Council continued its accountability inspections, and further implemented the Internet plus model of inspection. New approaches were adopted in conducting primary-level governance in urban and rural areas. We made solid headway in handling public complaints and clearing the backlog of cases.
We took stronger steps to ensure workplace safety and strengthened emergency response management. Our ability to safeguard national security was enhanced. We improved the crime prevention and control system, worked to crack down on organized crime and root out local criminal gangs on an ongoing basis, and fought telecom and cyber fraud as a priority. During severe flooding and other disasters that hit some parts of the country last year, government authorities and departments were actively involved in disaster prevention, relief, and reconstruction and earnestly strived to protect people’s lives and property.
We implemented the Party Central Committee’s strategic decision to exercise full and strict Party self-governance. We carried out activities to study the history of the CPC, and did more to improve Party conduct, build a government of integrity, and fight corruption. We strictly complied with the central Party leadership’s eight-point decision on improving work conduct, kept up our efforts to tackle pointless formalities, bureaucratism, hedonism and extravagance, and took further steps to ease the burdens of those working on the ground.
We advanced China’s major-country diplomacy on all fronts. President Xi Jinping and other Party and state leaders attended, via video link, major diplomatic events, including the 76th UN General Assembly, the 16th G20 Leaders’ Summit, the 28th APEC Economic Leaders’ Meeting, the 13th BRICS Summit, the Special Summit to Commemorate the 30th Anniversary of China-ASEAN Dialogue Relations, the opening ceremony of the Eighth Ministerial Conference of the Forum on China-Africa Cooperation, the East Asia leaders’ meetings on cooperation and the 13th Asia-Europe Meeting. We also successfully hosted a number of major diplomatic events.
We promoted the building of a human community with a shared future, fostered global partnerships, and played an active part in the reform and development of the global governance system. We advanced international cooperation on Covid-19 response and worked with all other countries to respond to issues and challenges global in nature. We have thus contributed our share to promoting world peace and development.
We owe our achievements last year to the strong leadership of the Party Central Committee with Comrade Xi Jinping at its core, the sound guidance of Xi Jinping Thought on Socialism with Chinese Characteristics for a New Era, and the concerted efforts of the Party, the armed forces and Chinese people of all ethnic groups.
On behalf of the State Council, I wish to express sincere gratitude to all our people, and to all other political parties, people’s organizations, and public figures from all sectors of society. I express heartfelt appreciation to our fellow countrymen and women in the Hong Kong and Macao special administrative regions, in Taiwan, and overseas. I also wish to express heartfelt thanks to the governments of other countries, international organizations and friends across the world who have shown understanding and support for us in China as we pursue modernization.
While recognizing our achievements, we are also very clear about the problems and challenges before us.
The Covid-19 pandemic is still ongoing. The world economic recovery lacks drive, and commodity prices remain high and are prone to fluctuation. All of this is making our external environment increasingly volatile, grave and uncertain.
In pursing economic development, China is under the triple pressures of shrinking demand, disrupted supply and weakening expectations. Local Covid-19 cases are still occurring sporadically. The recovery of consumption and investment is sluggish. It is getting more difficult to maintain steady growth in exports, the supply of energy resources and raw materials remains inadequate, and imported inflationary pressure has increased. Many MSMEs and self-employed individuals face difficulty in production and business operations, and the task of stabilizing employment is more formidable. Our capacity to support innovation is lacking in key areas. The budgetary imbalances of some local governments have become more pronounced, and many potential risks are present in the economic and financial sectors. In areas that are important to the public wellbeing, numerous issues need to be addressed.
There is also room for improvement in the work of government. Pointless formalities and bureaucratism remain an acute issue. Cases of becoming detached from reality and acting against the public will are still frequent. Some local governments use one-size-fits-all or campaign-style approaches in policy implementation. A small number of officials either shirk their responsibilities, fail to do their jobs, or behave irresponsibly. Some officials, by disregarding serious infringements on the rights and interests of the people, have been derelict in their duties. Corruption remains a common problem in some sectors.
We must be more mindful of potential difficulties, face problems and challenges squarely, make every effort to deliver a satisfactory performance, and do our utmost to live up to people’s expectations.
- Overall Requirements and Policy Orientation for Economic and Social Development in 2022
今年将召开中国共产党第二十次全国代表大会，是党和国家事 业发展进程中十分重要的一年。做好政府工作，要在以习近平同志 为核心的党中央坚强领导下，以习近平新时代中国特色社会主义思 想为指导，全面贯彻落实党的十九大和十九届历次全会精神，弘扬 伟大建党精神，坚持稳中求进工作总基调，完整、准确、全面贯彻 新发展理念，加快构建新发展格局，全面深化改革开放，坚持创新 驱动发展，推动高质量发展，坚持以供给侧结构性改革为主线，统 筹疫情防控和经济社会发展，统筹发展和安全，继续做好“六 稳”、“六保”工作，持续改善民生，着力稳定宏观经济大盘，保 持经济运行在合理区间，保持社会大局稳定，迎接党的二十大胜利召开。
This year is of great significance in the cause of the Party and the country, as the Communist Party of China will hold its 20th National Congress. For the government to deliver, we must, under the strong leadership of the Party Central Committee with Comrade Xi Jinping at its core, do the following:
- follow the guidance of Xi Jinping Thought on Socialism with Chinese Characteristics for a New Era;
- implement the guiding principles of the Party’s 19th National Congress and all plenary sessions of the 19th Party Central Committee;
- carry forward the great founding spirit of the Party; act on the general principle of pursuing progress while ensuring stability;
- apply the new development philosophy in full, in the right way, and in all fields of endeavor and move faster to create a new pattern of development;
- deepen reform and opening up in all respects;
- pursue innovation-driven development;
- promote high-quality development;
- advance supply-side structural reform as the main task;
- respond to Covid-19 and pursue economic and social development in a well-coordinated way;
- ensure both development and security;
- continue to ensure stability on six key fronts and maintain security in six key areas;
- keep working to improve people’s lives;
- strive to maintain stable macroeconomic performance;
- keep major economic indicators within an appropriate range; and
- maintain overall social stability.
These efforts will enable us to pave the way for a successful 20th National Party Congress.
综合研判国内外形势，今年我国发展面临的风险挑战明显增 多，必须爬坡过坎。越是困难越要坚定信心、越要真抓实干。我国 经济长期向好的基本面不会改变，持续发展具有多方面有利条件， 9 特别是亿万人民有追求美好生活的强烈愿望、创业创新的巨大潜 能、共克时艰的坚定意志，我们还积累了应对重大风险挑战的丰富 经验。中国经济一定能顶住新的下行压力，必将行稳致远。
A comprehensive analysis of evolving dynamics at home and abroad indicates that this year our country will encounter many more risks and challenges, and we must keep pushing to overcome them. The harder things get, the more confident we must be, and the more solid steps we must take to deliver outcomes.
The fundamentals of our economy remain unchanged, and they will maintain long-term growth. We have many favorable conditions for sustaining development. Most notably, our people, in their hundreds of millions, aspire to a better life, have huge potential for starting businesses and engaging in innovation, and are resolved to overcome all difficulties together. We have also acquired a wealth of experience in dealing with major risks and challenges. There is no doubt but that China’s economy will withstand any new downward pressure and continue growing steadily long into the future.
今年发展主要预期目标是：国内生产总值增长 5.5%左右;城镇 新增就业 1100 万人以上，城镇调查失业率全年控制在 5.5%以内;居 民消费价格涨幅 3%左右;居民收入增长与经济增长基本同步;进出口 保稳提质，国际收支基本平衡;粮食产量保持在 1.3 万亿斤以上;生 态环境质量持续改善，主要污染物排放量继续下降;能耗强度目标在 “十四五”规划期内统筹考核，并留有适当弹性，新增可再生能源 和原料用能不纳入能源消费总量控制。
The main projected targets for development this year are as follows:
- GDP growth of around 5.5 percent
- over 11 million new urban jobs
- a surveyed urban unemployment rate of no more than 5.5 percent
- CPI increase of around 3 percent
- growth in personal income that is basically in step with economic growth
- steady increases in both the volume and quality of imports and exports
- a basic equilibrium in the balance of payments
- grain output of over 650 million metric tons
- further improvement in the environment
- continued reduction in the discharge of major pollutants
- energy consumption per unit of GDP to be assessed with appropriate flexibility within the framework of the 14th Five-Year Plan; and the exclusion of newly added renewable energy and coal, petroleum, and natural gas consumed as raw materials in the total amount of energy consumption.
经济增速预期目标的设定，主要考虑稳就业保民生防风险的需要，并同近两年平均经济增速以及“十四五”规划目标要求相衔接。这是高基数上的中高速增长，体现了主动作为，需要付出艰苦努力才能实现。 The above economic growth target is based mainly on the need to maintain stable employment, meet basic living needs, and guard against risks. This target is also in keeping with the average growth rates of the last two years and the goals of the 14th Five-Year Plan. It represents a medium-high rate of growth given our large economic aggregate, and demonstrates our ability to move proactively. But achieving this goal will require arduous efforts.
完成今年发展目标任务，宏观政策要稳健有效，微观政策要持 续激发市场主体活力，结构政策要着力畅通国民经济循环，科技政策要扎实落地，改革开放政策要激活发展动力，区域政策要增强发 展的平衡性协调性，社会政策要兜住兜牢民生底线。各方面要围绕 贯彻这些重大政策和要求，细化实化具体举措，形成推动发展的合力。
To fulfill the development goals and tasks for the year, we should pursue prudent and effective macro policies, micro policies that can continuously energize market entities, and structural policies that facilitate smooth flows in the economy. Science and technology policies should be fully implemented, reform and opening up policies should lend impetus to development, regional policies should ensure more balanced and coordinated development, and social policies should meet basic living needs. All of us involved must adopt detailed and effective measures to meet these major policy requirements and create synergy for driving growth.
要保持宏观政策连续性，增强有效性。积极的财政政策要提升 效能，更加注重精准、可持续。稳健的货币政策要灵活适度，保持 10 流动性合理充裕。就业优先政策要提质加力。政策发力适当靠前， 及时动用储备政策工具，确保经济平稳运行。 Macro policies should be kept consistent and made more effective. The proactive fiscal policy should be more effectual, more targeted, and more sustainable. The prudent monetary policy should be both flexible and appropriate, with reasonably ample liquidity being maintained. The employment-first policy should be pursued with intensified efforts to deliver the desired outcomes. These policies should produce effects early on, and the policy tools we have in reserve should be promptly deployed to ensure stable economic performance.
继续做好常态化疫情防控。坚持外防输入、内防反弹，不断优 化完善防控措施，加强口岸城市疫情防控，加大对病毒变异的研究 和防范力度，加快新型疫苗和特效药物研发，持续做好疫苗接种工 作，更好发挥中医药独特作用，科学精准处置局部疫情，保持正常 生产生活秩序。 We will continue effective routine Covid-19 control. To prevent inbound cases and domestic resurgences, we need to constantly refine epidemic containment measures, strengthen epidemic controls in port-of-entry cities, step up efforts to study and protect against virus variants, accelerate R&D of new vaccines and effective medicines, continue implementing vaccination programs, and give full play to the unique role of traditional Chinese medicine. Occurrences of local cases must be handled in a scientific and targeted manner, and the normal order of work and life must be ensured.
今年工作要坚持稳字当头、稳中求进。面对新的下行压力，要 把稳增长放在更加突出的位置。各地区各部门要切实担负起稳定经 济的责任，积极推出有利于经济稳定的政策。要统筹稳增长、调结 构、推改革，加快转变发展方式，不搞粗放型发展。坚持实事求 是，立足社会主义初级阶段基本国情，着力办好自己的事，尊重发 展规律、客观实际和群众需求，因地制宜创造性开展工作，把各方 面干事创业积极性充分调动起来。推动有效市场和有为政府更好结 合，善于运用改革创新办法，激发市场活力和社会创造力。要坚持 以人民为中心的发展思想，依靠共同奋斗，扎实推进共同富裕，不 断实现人民对美好生活的向往。In our work this year, we must make economic stability our top priority and pursue progress while ensuring stability. In the face of new downward pressure, the task of ensuring stable growth needs to occupy an even more prominent position. All localities and government departments should fulfill their responsibilities for maintaining stable macroeconomic performance by proactively introducing pro-stability policies. We should take coordinated moves to keep growth stable, promote structural adjustment, and carry out reform. We should work faster to transform the growth model, and say no to an extensive development model. We should follow a fact-based approach, and bear in mind the fundamental dimension of China’s national context, that is, it is still in the primary stage of socialism. We should manage our own affairs well, and respect the laws of development, the reality on the ground, and the needs of the people. We should work in creative ways in light of actual conditions and motivate all stakeholders to pursue development endeavors. We should promote both an efficient market and a well-functioning government, and we should be adept at using reform and innovation to boost market dynamism and social creativity. We must act on the people-centered development philosophy and rely on the efforts of everyone to promote prosperity for all, so as to keep realizing the people’s aspirations for a better life.
III. Major Tasks for 2022
今年经济社会发展任务重、挑战多。要按照以习近平同志为核 心的党中央部署要求，完整、准确、全面贯彻新发展理念，加快构 建新发展格局，推动高质量发展，扎实做好各项工作。This year, we face heavy tasks and many challenges in economic and social development. We should follow the decisions and requirements of the Party Central Committee with Comrade Xi Jinping at its core, apply the new development philosophy in full, in the right way, and in all fields of endeavor, move faster to create a new pattern of development, and promote high-quality development, so as to deliver solid outcomes in all areas of our work.
(一)着力稳定宏观经济大盘，保持经济运行在合理区间。继续 做好“六稳”、“六保”工作。宏观政策有空间有手段，要强化跨 周期和逆周期调节，为经济平稳运行提供有力支撑。 1. Achieving stable macroeconomic performance and keeping major economic indicators within the appropriate range
We must continue to ensure stability on six fronts and maintain security in six areas. We have both macro-policy tools and space available to us, and we should use them to intensify cross- and counter-cyclical adjustments and to provide strong support for a stable economic performance.
提升积极的财政政策效能。今年赤字率拟按 2.8%左右安排、比 去年有所下调，有利于增强财政可持续性。预计今年财政收入继续 增长，加之特定国有金融机构和专营机构依法上缴近年结存的利 润、调入预算稳定调节基金等，支出规模比去年扩大 2 万亿元以 上，可用财力明显增加。新增财力要下沉基层，主要用于落实助企 纾困、稳就业保民生政策，促进消费、扩大需求。今年安排中央本 级支出增长 3.9%，其中中央部门支出继续负增长。中央对地方转移 支付增加约 1.5 万亿元、规模近 9.8 万亿元，增长 18%、为多年来 最大增幅。中央财政将更多资金纳入直达范围，省级财政也要加大 对市县的支持，务必使基层落实惠企利民政策更有能力、更有动 力。 We will see that the proactive fiscal policy is more effective. We have set the deficit-to-GDP ratio for the year at around 2.8 percent, slightly lower than last year, and this will boost fiscal sustainability. It is projected that fiscal revenue will continue to grow in 2022. In addition, we also have available to us the surplus profits of state-owned financial institutions and state monopoly business operations from recent years turned over in accordance with the law and funds transferred from the Central Budget Stabilization Fund. This will make it possible for government to increase expenditures by more than two trillion yuan over last year, putting significantly greater fiscal resources at our disposal. New funds will be channeled to local levels of government and used mainly to ease the difficulties of enterprises, stabilize employment, meet living needs, and increase consumption and demand.
This year, central government expenditures will rise by 3.9 percent, but the budgetary spending of central government departments will continue to register negative growth. Central government transfer payments to local governments will come to close to 9.8 trillion yuan. This figure represents a growth of 18 percent, or around 1.5 trillion yuan, and is the largest increase in recent years. The central government will place more budgetary funds under the mechanism for direct allocation to prefecture- and county-level governments, and provincial-level governments should also provide additional fiscal support to these levels. It is imperative that local governments are both able and motivated to carry out policies that will benefit businesses and people.
要用好政府投资资金，带动扩大有效投资。今年拟安排地方政 府专项债券 3.65 万亿元。强化绩效导向，坚持“资金、要素跟着项 目走”，合理扩大使用范围，支持在建项目后续融资，开工一批具 备条件的重大工程、新型基础设施、老旧公用设施改造等建设项 目。民间投资在投资中占大头，要发挥重大项目牵引和政府投资撬 动作用，完善相关支持政策，充分调动民间投资积极性。
We will use government investment funds to stimulate and expand effective investment. This year, special-purpose bonds for local governments will total 3.65 trillion yuan. We will, taking a performance-oriented approach, ensure that investment funds and other production factors stay with projects they are allocated to, while appropriately widening the scope of usage for such factors. We will support follow-up financing for ongoing projects, and begin construction on major projects that are ready for launching, new types of infrastructure, and renovations of outdated public facilities.
The lion’s share of investment in China comes from the non-government sector. We will give full play to the leveraging role of major projects and government investment and refine relevant supporting policies to keep non-government investors fully motivated.
要坚持政府过紧日子，更好节用裕民。大力优化支出结构，保 障重点支出，严控一般性支出。盘活财政存量资金和闲置资产。各级政府必须艰苦奋斗、勤俭节约，中央政府和省级政府要带头。加 强收支管理，严禁铺张浪费，不得违规新建楼堂馆所，不得搞形象 工程，对违反财经纪律、肆意挥霍公款的要严查重处，一定要把宝 贵资金用在发展紧要处、民生急需上。
Government will keep its belt tightened and keep spending low to benefit the people. We will improve the mix of government spending so as to ensure funding for key areas and strictly control general expenditures. Budgetary funds and assets sitting idle will be put into good use. Governments at every level need to operate within their means and economize where possible, and central and provincial-level governments should take the lead in this regard.
Management of fiscal receipts and outlays will be tightened up, and wasteful and excessive spending will be prohibited. We will prevent the construction of new government buildings in violation of regulations. No vanity projects will be tolerated, and anyone who violates fiscal discipline or squanders public funds will be investigated and severely punished. We must ensure that our precious funds are used in areas that are critical to development and to meet the urgent needs of the people.
加大稳健的货币政策实施力度。发挥货币政策工具的总量和结 构双重功能，为实体经济提供更有力支持。扩大新增贷款规模，保 持货币供应量和社会融资规模增速与名义经济增速基本匹配，保持 宏观杠杆率基本稳定。保持人民币汇率在合理均衡水平上的基本稳 定。进一步疏通货币政策传导机制，引导资金更多流向重点领域和 薄弱环节，扩大普惠金融覆盖面。推动金融机构降低实际贷款利 率、减少收费，让广大市场主体切身感受到融资便利度提升、综合 融资成本实实在在下降。
We will step up implementation of the prudent monetary policy. We will use monetary policy tools to adjust both the monetary aggregate and the monetary structure, so as to provide more robust support for the real economy. We will expand the scale of new loans, see that increases in money supply and aggregate financing are generally in step with nominal economic growth, and keep the macro leverage ratio generally stable. The RMB exchange rate will be kept generally stable at an adaptive, balanced level.
We will further improve the transmission mechanism of monetary policy, channel more funds into key areas and weak links, and expand the coverage of inclusive finance. Financial institutions will be encouraged to lower real loan interest rates and cut fees, so as to truly make it easier for market entities to access financing and achieve a considerable drop in overall financing costs.
强化就业优先政策。大力拓宽就业渠道，注重通过稳市场主体 来稳就业，增强创业带动就业作用。财税、金融等政策都要围绕就 业优先实施，加大对企业稳岗扩岗的支持力度。各类专项促就业政 策要强化优化，对就业创业的不合理限制要坚决清理取消。各地都 要千方百计稳定和扩大就业。
We will strengthen the employment-first policy. We will work to broaden the employment channels, promote employment stability by keeping the operations of market entities stable, and harness the role of business startups in boosting employment. Fiscal and financial policies will facilitate implementation of the employment-first policy, and greater support will be provided for enterprises to stabilize and expand employment. All dedicated employment policies will be strengthened and improved, and we will resolutely act to overhaul or abolish excessive restrictions on employment and business startups. All local governments must use every possible means to stabilize employment and expand it further.
确保粮食能源安全。保障粮食等重要农产品供应，继续做好能 源、重要原材料保供稳价工作，保障民生和企业正常生产经营用 电。实施全面节约战略。增强国内资源生产保障能力，加快油气、 矿产等资源勘探开发，完善国家战略物资储备制度，保障初级产品 供给。打击哄抬物价等行为。保持物价水平基本稳定。
We will ensure food and energy security. We will ensure the supply of grain and other major agricultural products, as well as the supply and price stability of energy and important raw materials, and guarantee sufficient electricity to meet people’s living needs and conduct normal business production and operations. We will implement a comprehensive resource conservation strategy. To enhance China’s capacity for resource production and supply, we will step up petroleum, natural gas and mineral exploration and development, improve the national strategic goods reserve system, and ensure the supply of primary products. We will crack down on price gouging, and ensure price levels are kept generally stable.
防范化解重大风险。继续按照稳定大局、统筹协调、分类施 策、精准拆弹的基本方针，做好经济金融领域风险防范和处置工 作。压实地方属地责任、部门监管责任和企业主体责任，加强风险 预警、防控机制和能力建设，设立金融稳定保障基金，发挥存款保 险制度和行业保障基金的作用，运用市场化、法治化方式化解风险 隐患，有效应对外部冲击，牢牢守住不发生系统性风险的底线。 We will prevent and defuse major risks. We will continue to guard against and address economic and financial risks in accordance with the fundamental principles of maintaining overall stability, ensuring coordination, implementing category-based policies, and defusing risks through targeted efforts. We will see that local governments fulfill their responsibilities, the competent government departments tighten regulation, and enterprises shoulder primary responsibility. We will make stronger efforts to give early-warning of risks, enhance risk prevention and control mechanisms, and build capacities for responding to risks. A fund for ensuring financial stability will be established, the deposit insurance system and industry guarantee funds will be brought fully into play, and market- and law-based methods will be used to defuse risks and potential dangers and to respond to external shocks. All these efforts will ensure that no systemic risks arise.
- Keeping the operations of market entities stable and maintaining job security by strengthening macro policies
We will improve policies for easing the burdens and difficulties of market entities and create a stronger foundation for achieving a stable and sounder economic performance.
实施新的组合式税费支持政策。坚持阶段性措施和制度性安排 相结合，减税与退税并举。一方面，延续实施扶持制造业、小微企 业和个体工商户的减税降费政策，并提高减免幅度、扩大适用范 围。对小规模纳税人阶段性免征增值税。对小微企业年应纳税所得 额 100 万元至 300 万元部分，再减半征收企业所得税。各地也要结 合实际，依法出台税费减免等有力措施，使减税降费力度只增不 减，以稳定市场预期。另一方面，综合考虑为企业提供现金流支 持、促进就业消费投资，大力改进因增值税税制设计类似于先缴后 退的留抵退税制度，今年对留抵税额提前实行大规模退税。优先安 排小微企业，对小微企业的存量留抵税额于 6 月底前一次性全部退 还，增量留抵税额足额退还。重点支持制造业，全面解决制造业、 科研和技术服务、生态环保、电力燃气、交通运输等行业留抵退税 问题。增值税留抵退税力度显著加大，以有力提振市场信心。预计 全年退税减税约 2.5 万亿元，其中留抵退税约 1.5 万亿元，退税资金全部直达企业。中央财政将加大对地方财力支持，补助资金直达 市县，地方政府及有关部门要建立健全工作机制，加强资金调度， 确保退税减税这项关键性举措落实到位，为企业雪中送炭，助企业 焕发生机。
We will implement a new package of tax-and-fee policies to support enterprises. We will continue to take temporary steps and institutional measures and apply policies for both tax reductions and refunds. First, we will extend tax and fee reduction policies that support manufacturing, micro and small enterprises and self-employed individuals, and expand the scale and scope of these policies. A temporary exemption on VAT payments will be granted to small taxpayers. Corporate income tax on annual taxable income of between one million and three million yuan will be halved once again for micro and small enterprises. Local governments should also adopt effective tax-and-fee reduction steps based on local conditions and in accordance with the law to maintain the scale of tax-and-fee reductions and keep market expectations stable. Second, to improve the cash flow of enterprises, promote employment- and consumption-driven investment, and further improve the system for refunding excess input VAT credits, we will issue VAT credit refunds ahead of time this year on a big scale. We will give priority to micro and small enterprises, refunding outstanding VAT credits to them in one lump sum by the end of June, while also fully refunding newly added credits. With a focus on supporting manufacturing, we will work to fully resolve problems in refunding VAT credits in manufacturing, research and technical services, environmental protection, electricity and gas, and transportation industries. Such a substantial increase in VAT credit refunds will help strongly boost market confidence. Tax refunds and cuts are expected to total 2.5 trillion yuan this year. VAT credit refunds will account for 1.5 trillion yuan of this sum and all go straight to enterprises. The central government will provide greater fiscal support for local governments and allocate fiscal subsidies directly to the prefecture and county levels. Local governments and relevant departments should develop sound systems to allocate funds more effectively. We must ensure that the critically important policy of tax refunds and cuts takes full effect, in order to provide enterprises with timely assistance and help them generate fresh vitality.
加强金融对实体经济的有效支持。用好普惠小微贷款支持工 具，增加支农支小再贷款，优化监管考核，推动普惠小微贷款明显 增长、信用贷款和首贷户比重继续提升。引导金融机构准确把握信 贷政策，继续对受疫情影响严重的行业企业给予融资支持，避免出 现行业性限贷、抽贷、断贷。发挥好政策性、开发性金融作用。推 进涉企信用信息整合共享，加快税务、海关、电力等单位与金融机 构信息联通，扩大政府性融资担保对小微企业的覆盖面，努力营造 良好融资生态，进一步推动解决实体经济特别是中小微企业融资难 题。
We will encourage the financial sector to provide more effective support to the real economy. We will make good use of instruments to support inclusive loans to micro and small businesses, and increase re-lending for agricultural and small enterprises. We will strengthen supervision and assessment to promote a marked increase in inclusive loans to micro and small businesses and a further rise in the proportion of collateral-free loans and first-time loans. We will see that financial institutions have a good understanding of credit policies, ensure continued financing support for industries and enterprises hit hard by Covid-19, and prevent industry-wide lending restrictions, forced early repayment of loans, and arbitrary termination of loan agreements.
We will make good use of policy-backed and development finance. We will promote the sharing of enterprise credit information and move faster to achieve information integration and sharing between financial institutions and tax offices, customs, electric utilities and other agencies. The government financing guaranty will be expanded to cover more micro and small businesses. We will strive to create a favorable financing environment and help resolve the financing difficulties of enterprises in the real economy, especially MSMEs.
推动降低企业生产经营成本。清理转供电环节不合理加价，支 持地方对特殊困难行业用电实行阶段性优惠政策。引导大型平台企 业降低收费，减轻中小商户负担。进一步清理规范行业协会商会、 中介机构等收费。要开展涉企违规收费专项整治行动，建立协同治 理和联合惩戒机制，坚决查处乱收费、乱罚款、乱摊派。要加大拖 欠中小企业账款清理力度，规范商业承兑汇票使用，机关、事业单 位和国有企业要带头清欠。餐饮、住宿、零售、文化、旅游、客运 等行业就业容量大、受疫情影响重，各项帮扶政策都要予以倾斜， 支持这些行业企业挺得住、过难关、有奔头。
We will help lower business costs. We will rectify excessive surcharges levied by utility companies, and support local governments in adopting temporary preferential policies on electricity use for industries which are experiencing particular difficulty. We will encourage large platform enterprises to lower service fees and lighten the burden on small and medium businesses. Further steps will be taken to regulate and overhaul fees charged by industry associations, chambers of commerce, and intermediaries.
We will launch initiatives to end unjustified charges levied on businesses, and develop mechanisms for coordinated regulation and joint punishment. We will fully investigate and punish the imposition of arbitrary charges, fines, and quotas.
We will intensify efforts to get outstanding payments owed to small and medium enterprises cleared. We will standardize the usage of commercial acceptance bills, and ensure that government bodies, public institutions, and state-owned enterprises (SOEs) take the lead in clearing overdue payments.
Catering, hospitality, retail, culture, tourism, and passenger transport sectors have a large capacity for employment. However, they have been severely affected by Covid-19. Support policies will be weighted more heavily toward enterprises in these sectors to help them stay afloat and get through challenging times with bright prospects.
落实落细稳就业举措。延续执行降低失业和工伤保险费率等阶 段性稳就业政策。对不裁员少裁员的企业，继续实施失业保险稳岗 返还政策，明显提高中小微企业返还比例。今年高校毕业生超过 1000 万人，要加强就业创业指导、政策支持和不断线服务。做好退 役军人安置和就业保障，促进农民工就业，帮扶残疾人、零就业家 庭成员就业。深入开展大众创业万众创新，增强双创平台服务能 力。加强灵活就业服务，完善灵活就业社会保障政策，开展新就业 形态职业伤害保障试点。坚决防止和纠正性别、年龄、学历等就业 歧视，大力营造公平就业环境。加强劳动保障监察执法，着力解决 侵害劳动者合法权益的突出问题。增强公共就业服务针对性。继续 开展大规模职业技能培训，共建共享一批公共实训基地。使用 1000 亿元失业保险基金支持稳岗和培训，加快培养制造业高质量发展的 急需人才，让更多劳动者掌握一技之长、让三百六十行行行人才辈 出。
We will fully implement all measures to stabilize employment. Temporary policies such as reductions to premiums for unemployment insurance and workers’ compensation will be extended. We will continue the policy of refunding unemployment insurance premiums for enterprises that make no cuts or minimal cuts to staff numbers, with a marked increase in the proportion of refunds going to MSMEs.
Over 10 million students are due to graduate from college this year, and we will give our graduates stronger guidance and policy support and uninterrupted services to ensure they can find jobs or start businesses. We will help ex-service members get resettled and re-employed, broaden employment channels for rural migrant workers, and assist people with disabilities and members of zero-employment families in securing jobs.
We will do more to promote business startups and innovation initiatives, and improve the service capacity of entrepreneurship and innovation platforms. We will improve services and social security policies concerning flexible employment, and launch trials of occupational injury insurance for people in new forms of employment. We will work hard to prevent and stop gender, age, and education discrimination in the workplace in order to create a fair employment environment. We will strengthen oversight and enforcement of labor protection laws and focus on addressing acute issues that are infringing upon employees’ lawful rights and interests.
We will make public employment services more targeted. We will continue to carry out vocational skills training on a large scale and establish a number of public training bases through joint construction and sharing initiatives. A total of 100 billion yuan from the unemployment insurance fund will be used to support enterprises in maintaining stable payrolls and providing training programs, and we will speed up training of skilled workers who are urgently needed to promote high-quality development of manufacturing. These efforts will enable more workers to acquire marketable skills and large numbers of talented people to come to the fore in all sectors.
(三)坚定不移深化改革，更大激发市场活力和发展内生动力。 处理好政府和市场的关系，使市场在资源配置中起决定性作用，更 好发挥政府作用，构建高水平社会主义市场经济体制。
- Steadfastly deepening reform to strengthen market vitality and internal momentum for development
To develop a high-standard socialist market economy, we should give play to the roles of both the government and the market, seeing that the market plays the decisive role in the allocation of resources and the government better fulfills its role.
加快转变政府职能。加强高标准市场体系建设，抓好要素市场 化配置综合改革试点，加快建设全国统一大市场。围绕打造市场化 法治化国际化营商环境，持续推进“放管服”改革，对取消和下放 审批事项要同步落实监管责任和措施。继续扩大市场准入。全面实 行行政许可事项清单管理。加强数字政府建设，推动政务数据共享，进一步压减各类证明事项，扩大“跨省通办”范围，基本实现 电子证照互通互认，便利企业跨区域经营，加快解决群众关切事项 的异地办理问题。推进政务服务事项集成化办理，推出优化不动产 登记、车辆检测等便民举措。强化政府监管责任，严格落实行业主 管部门、相关部门监管责任和地方政府属地监管责任，防止监管缺 位。加快建立健全全方位、多层次、立体化监管体系，实现事前事 中事后全链条全领域监管，提高监管效能。抓紧完善重点领域、新 兴领域、涉外领域监管规则，创新监管方法，提升监管精准性和有 效性。深入推进公平竞争政策实施，加强反垄断和反不正当竞争， 维护公平有序的市场环境。
We will step up efforts to transform government functions. We will do more to build a high-standard market system, carry out a comprehensive pilot reform for the market-based allocation of production factors, and strive to accelerate the development of a unified domestic market. We will deepen reforms to streamline administration and delegate power, improve regulation, and upgrade services with a focus on creating a market-oriented, law-based and internationalized business environment. We will make sure that at the same time as government approval for a certain matter is canceled or delegated to lower-level authorities, corresponding regulatory steps are taken and responsibilities are assumed.
We will continue to expand market access. List-based management will be fully implemented for matters requiring government approval. We will work to build a digital government and promote the sharing of government data. We will continue to reduce various certification requirements and provide more government services on a cross-provincial basis. We will basically realize mutual nationwide recognition of electronic licenses and certificates to facilitate enterprises with trans-regional operations, and provide people with greater access to important services outside of their home jurisdiction. We will facilitate integrated access to government services, and introduce simpler procedures for the registration of immovable property and motor vehicle inspections.
We will strengthen the regulatory responsibilities of government and ensure that all competent authorities, relevant departments and local governments fulfill their regulatory responsibilities for matters under their jurisdiction, so as to prevent any absence of regulation. To ensure regulation is effective, we will work faster to establish a comprehensive, tiered and multifaceted system to regulate all stages, from start to finish, in all sectors. We will act quickly to improve regulatory rules for key industries, emerging sectors, and sectors with foreign involvement and introduce new measures to make regulation more targeted and more effective.
We will further the implementation of policies to ensure fair competition and take stronger action against monopolies and unfair competition to ensure a well-ordered and fair market environment.
促进多种所有制经济共同发展。坚持和完善社会主义基本经济 制度，坚持“两个毫不动摇”。要正确认识和把握资本的特性和行 为规律，支持和引导资本规范健康发展。依法平等保护企业产权、 自主经营权和企业家合法权益，营造各类所有制企业竞相发展的良 好环境。完成国企改革三年行动任务，加快国有经济布局优化和结 构调整，深化混合所有制改革，加强国有资产监管，促进国企聚焦 主责主业、提升产业链供应链支撑和带动能力。落实支持民营经济 发展的政策措施，鼓励引导民营企业改革创新，构建亲清政商关 系。弘扬企业家精神，制定涉企政策要多听市场主体意见，尊重市 场规律，支持企业家专注创业创新、安心经营发展。
We will promote the common development of enterprises under all forms of ownership. We will uphold and further improve the basic socialist economic system, and work unswervingly both to consolidate and develop the public sector and to encourage, support and guide development of the non-public sector.
We must have a good understanding of the defining features of capital and the way it works, so as to support and guide its well-regulated and sound development. We will provide equitable and law-based protection to the property rights and independent management rights of enterprises and to the lawful rights and interests of entrepreneurs. By doing so, we will create a favorable environment for enterprises under all forms of ownership to compete and grow together.
We will complete the three-year action plan for SOE reform, move faster to adjust and improve the layout and structure of the state-owned sector, deepen the reform to introduce mixed ownership in SOEs, and tighten regulation of state-owned capital. SOEs will be encouraged to better play their role in supporting and driving development of industrial and supply chains with a focus on their primary responsibilities and core businesses.
We will implement policies and measures to support the development of the private sector, and encourage and guide private enterprises in reform and innovation. We will foster a cordial and clean relationship between government and business. To promote the entrepreneurial spirit, we will solicit the opinions of market entities more when we are designing enterprise-related policies, respect the laws of the market, and help entrepreneurs to devote themselves to creating start-ups and pursuing innovation and to develop their businesses free from undue concern.
推进财税金融体制改革。深化预算绩效管理改革，增强预算的 约束力和透明度。推进省以下财政体制改革。完善税收征管制度，依法打击偷税骗税。加强和改进金融监管。深化中小银行股权结构 和公司治理改革，加快不良资产处置。完善民营企业债券融资支持 机制，全面实行股票发行注册制，促进资本市场平稳健康发展。
We will advance reforms of the fiscal, taxation, and financial systems. We will further reform the performance-based budgetary management and strengthen budgetary constraints and transparency. Reform will be carried out in fiscal systems below the provincial level. We will improve the tax collection and administration system and crack down on tax evasion and fraud in accordance with the law.
We will strengthen and refine financial regulation, further reform the equity structures and corporate governance of small and medium banks, and move faster to deal with nonperforming assets. We will improve the system for supporting debt financing by private enterprises, achieve full implementation of the registration-based IPO system, and promote steady and sound development of the capital market.
(四)深入实施创新驱动发展战略，巩固壮大实体经济根基。推 进科技创新，促进产业优化升级，突破供给约束堵点，依靠创新提 高发展质量。
- Further implementing the innovation-driven development strategy and strengthening the foundation of the real economy
We need to promote scientific and technological innovation, so as to upgrade our industries, eliminate the bottlenecks in supply, and realize high-quality development through innovation.
提升科技创新能力。实施基础研究十年规划，加强长期稳定支 持，提高基础研究经费占全社会研发经费比重。实施科技体制改革 三年攻坚方案，强化国家战略科技力量，加强国家实验室和全国重 点实验室建设，发挥好高校和科研院所作用，改进重大科技项目立 项和管理方式，深化科技评价激励制度改革。支持各地加大科技投 入，开展各具特色的区域创新。加强科普工作。推进国际科技合 作。加快建设世界重要人才中心和创新高地，完善人才发展体制机 制，弘扬科学家精神，加大对青年科研人员支持力度，让各类人才 潜心钻研、尽展其能。
We will raise our capacity for scientific and technological innovation. We will press ahead with the 10-year action plan on basic research to ensure stable support over the long term, and increase the share of basic research spending in the country’s total R&D expenditures. We will implement a three-year action plan for reforming the science and technology management system, reinforce China’s strategic science and technology capabilities, further develop national laboratories and key national laboratories, and leverage the strengths of universities, colleges, and research institutes.
We will improve the approval procedures for major science and technology projects and their management, and further reform the assessment and incentive systems for scientific research. We will support local governments in increasing spending on science and technology and encourage innovations with distinctive regional features. Greater efforts will be made to increase people’s scientific knowledge.
We will continue to engage in international scientific and technological cooperation, and step up efforts to build talent centers and innovation hubs of global importance. We will improve institutions and mechanisms for talent development, champion the spirit of our nation’s scientists, provide more support to young researchers, and encourage outstanding people of all types to devote themselves to research and realize their full potential.
加大企业创新激励力度。强化企业创新主体地位，持续推进关 键核心技术攻关，深化产学研用结合，促进科技成果转移转化。加 强知识产权保护和运用。促进创业投资发展，创新科技金融产品和 服务，提升科技中介服务专业化水平。加大研发费用加计扣除政策 实施力度，将科技型中小企业加计扣除比例从 75%提高到 100%，对 企业投入基础研究实行税收优惠，完善设备器具加速折旧、高新技 术企业所得税优惠等政策，这相当于国家对企业创新给予大规模资金支持。要落实好各类创新激励政策，以促进企业加大研发投入， 培育壮大新动能。
We will provide stronger incentives to promote innovation among enterprises. We will reinforce the principal position of enterprises in innovation, continue promoting breakthroughs in core technologies in key fields, promote greater synergy between industry, academia, research, and application, and facilitate the commercialization and application of advances in science and technology. We will strengthen intellectual property rights protection and application.
We will promote the development of venture capital, develop new financial products and services to support scientific and technological development, and upgrade intermediary services for science and technology.
We will enhance the policy on granting additional tax deductions for R&D costs, raising the deduction coverage for small and medium sci-tech enterprises from 75 percent to 100 percent. We will grant tax breaks to enterprises that invest in basic research, and improve our policies on accelerated depreciation of equipment and tools and on preferential corporate income tax for new- and high-tech enterprises. All these measures amount to a large injection of government funding to support enterprises’ innovation endeavors. We must fully implement all policy incentives for innovation to encourage enterprises to invest more in R&D and thus generate and build up new drivers of growth.
增强制造业核心竞争力。促进工业经济平稳运行，加强原材 料、关键零部件等供给保障，实施龙头企业保链稳链工程，维护产 业链供应链安全稳定。引导金融机构增加制造业中长期贷款。启动 一批产业基础再造工程项目，促进传统产业升级，大力推进智能制 造，加快发展先进制造业集群，实施国家战略性新兴产业集群工 程。着力培育“专精特新”企业，在资金、人才、孵化平台搭建等 方面给予大力支持。推进质量强国建设，推动产业向中高端迈进。
We will boost the core competitiveness of manufacturing. To promote stable performance of industry, we will ensure supply of raw materials and key spare parts, and launch initiatives to have leading enterprises fully play their role in safeguarding the stability and security of industrial and supply chains. We will encourage financial institutions to increase medium- and long-term lending to the manufacturing sector.
We will launch a group of industrial foundation reengineering projects, help upgrade traditional industries, promote smart manufacturing, accelerate the development of advanced manufacturing clusters, and launch a national program to foster clusters of strategic emerging industries. We will work to nurture specialized and sophisticated enterprises that produce new and unique products and provide them with more support in terms of funding, personnel, and development of business incubation platforms. We will continue efforts to build China into a manufacturer of quality and steer Chinese manufacturing toward the medium- and high-end.
促进数字经济发展。加强数字中国建设整体布局。建设数字信 息基础设施，逐步构建全国一体化大数据中心体系，推进 5G 规模化 应用，促进产业数字化转型，发展智慧城市、数字乡村。加快发展 工业互联网，培育壮大集成电路、人工智能等数字产业，提升关键 软硬件技术创新和供给能力。完善数字经济治理，培育数据要素市 场，释放数据要素潜力，提高应用能力，更好赋能经济发展、丰富 人民生活。
We will encourage development of the digital economy. We will strengthen overall planning for the Digital China initiative, build more digital information infrastructure, develop an integrated national system of big data centers step by step, and apply 5G technology on a larger scale. We will advance digitalization of industries, and build smart cities and digital villages. We will accelerate development of the Industrial Internet, build up digital industries such as integrated circuits and artificial intelligence, and enhance China’s technological innovation and supply capacities for key software and hardware. To better promote economic development and enrich people’s lives, we will improve governance of the digital economy, develop data markets, tap the potential of data as a factor of production, and enhance data-use capacities.
(五)坚定实施扩大内需战略，推进区域协调发展和新型城镇 化。畅通国民经济循环，打通生产、分配、流通、消费各环节，增 强内需对经济增长的拉动力。
- Expanding domestic demand and promoting coordinated regional development and new urbanization
To promote unimpeded flows in the economy, we will remove all impediments to smooth production, distribution, circulation, and consumption and see that domestic demand plays a bigger role in driving economic growth.
推动消费持续恢复。多渠道促进居民增收，完善收入分配制 度，提升消费能力。推动线上线下消费深度融合，促进生活服务消 费恢复，发展消费新业态新模式。继续支持新能源汽车消费，鼓励地方开展绿色智能家电下乡和以旧换新。加大社区养老、托幼等配 套设施建设力度，在规划、用地、用房等方面给予更多支持。促进 家政服务业提质扩容。加强县域商业体系建设，发展农村电商和快 递物流配送。提高产品和服务质量，强化消费者权益保护，着力适 应群众需求、增强消费意愿。
We will promote the sustained recovery of consumption. We will boost personal incomes through multiple channels, improve the income distribution system, and increase people’s spending power. We will strive for in-depth integration of online and offline consumption, promote recovery in consumption of consumer services, and foster new forms and models of consumer spending. We will continue to support the purchase of new-energy vehicles, and encourage local governments to promote spending on green and smart home appliances in rural areas as well as the replacement of old home appliances.
We will step up the construction of supporting facilities for community elderly and child care, and increase support for such projects in the aspects of planning, land use and building use. Domestic services will be upgraded and expanded. We will strengthen county-level commercial systems and develop e-commerce and express delivery services in rural areas. We will improve the quality of products and services, better protect the rights and interests of consumers, ensure public demand is met, and encourage people to spend.
积极扩大有效投资。围绕国家重大战略部署和“十四五”规 划，适度超前开展基础设施投资。建设重点水利工程、综合立体交 通网、重要能源基地和设施，加快城市燃气管道、给排水管道等管 网更新改造，完善防洪排涝设施，继续推进地下综合管廊建设。中 央预算内投资安排 6400 亿元。政府投资更多向民生项目倾斜，加大 社会民生领域补短板力度。深化投资审批制度改革，做好用地、用 能等要素保障，对国家重大项目要实行能耗单列。要优化投资结 构，破解投资难题，切实把投资关键作用发挥出来。
We will increase effective investment. In line with major national strategies and the 14th Five-Year Plan, we will make proactive investments in infrastructure as appropriate. We will construct major water conservancy projects, integrated multidimensional transportation networks and important energy bases and facilities. The upgrading of urban pipelines, including those for gas and water supply as well as sewage, will be accelerated. Flood prevention and drainage facilities will be improved, and the building of underground utility tunnels will continue.
Investment from the central government budget will reach 640 billion yuan this year. The government will make improving the people’s wellbeing an investment priority and work harder to shore up weak links in areas that are important to people’s lives. We will deepen reform of the investment approval system, ensure the provision of land, energy and other factors of production, and keep energy consumption of major national projects under separate management. We will also improve the investment mix and remove impediments to investment so as to fully leverage its critical role.
增强区域发展平衡性协调性。深入实施区域重大战略和区域协 调发展战略。推进京津冀协同发展、长江经济带发展、粤港澳大湾 区建设、长三角一体化发展、黄河流域生态保护和高质量发展，高 标准高质量建设雄安新区，支持北京城市副中心建设。推动西部大 开发形成新格局，推动东北振兴取得新突破，推动中部地区高质量 发展，鼓励东部地区加快推进现代化，支持产业梯度转移和区域合 作。支持革命老区、民族地区、边疆地区加快发展。发展海洋经 济，建设海洋强国。经济大省要充分发挥优势，增强对全国发展的带动作用。经济困难地区要用好国家支持政策，挖掘自身潜力，努 力促进经济恢复发展。
We will promote balanced and coordinated development among regions. We will fully implement all major regional development strategies and the strategy for coordinated regional development. We will promote coordinated development of the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region, development of the Yangtze Economic Belt, development of the Guangdong-Hong Kong-Macao Greater Bay Area, integrated development of the Yangtze River Delta, and ecological conservation and high-quality development in the Yellow River basin. We will advance the construction of Xiongan New Area according to high standards and quality requirements and support development of Beijing municipal administrative center.
We will usher in a new phase of large-scale development in the western region, promote breakthroughs in the revitalization of the northeast, spur high-quality development of the central region, and encourage the eastern region to accelerate its pace of modernization. We will support phased trans-regional relocation of industries as well as regional cooperation, and also support old revolutionary base areas, ethnic minority areas, and border areas in accelerating development. We will develop the maritime economy and build China into a strong maritime country.
Major economically developed provinces should leverage their strength to play a bigger role in driving development of the whole country. Regions experiencing economic difficulty should make full use of state support policies to tap their potential and stimulate economic recovery.
提升新型城镇化质量。有序推进城市更新，加强市政设施和防 灾减灾能力建设，开展老旧建筑和设施安全隐患排查整治，再开工 改造一批城镇老旧小区，支持加装电梯等设施，推进无障碍环境建 设和公共设施适老化改造。健全常住地提供基本公共服务制度。加 强县城基础设施建设。稳步推进城市群、都市圈建设，促进大中小 城市和小城镇协调发展。推进成渝地区双城经济圈建设。严控撤县 建市设区。在城乡规划建设中做好历史文化保护传承，节约集约用 地。要深入推进以人为核心的新型城镇化，不断提高人民生活质 量。
We will improve new urbanization initiatives. We will proceed with urban renewal in a well-conceived way. We will step up construction of public utilities and bolster capacities to prevent and mitigate natural disasters; identify and address safety hazards in old buildings and facilities; renovate another group of old residential communities in urban areas and support the installation of elevators in old residential buildings; and promote the development of barrier-free environments and renovation of public facilities for the convenience of senior citizens.
We will improve the systems for providing basic public services to people in places of their permanent residence and strengthen infrastructure in county seats. Steady steps will be taken to develop city clusters and metropolitan areas and to promote coordinated development of cities of different sizes and small towns. We will promote the development of the Chengdu-Chongqing economic zone. Strict standards will be applied in the re-designation of counties as cities or city districts.
In the course of planning and construction in urban and rural areas, we will protect and keep alive our historical and cultural heritage and promote efficient and intensive use of land. We will advance a new, people-centered type of urbanization to ensure that life becomes more and more fulfilling for our people.
- Boosting agricultural production and promoting all-around rural revitalization
We will refine and strengthen policies in support of agriculture, continue promoting development in areas lifted out of poverty, ensure good harvests, and promote growth in rural incomes.
加强粮食等重要农产品稳产保供。稳定粮食播种面积，优化粮 食结构，针对小麦晚播强化夏粮田间管理，促进大豆和油料增产。 适当提高稻谷、小麦最低收购价。保障化肥等农资供应和价格稳 定，给种粮农民再次发放农资补贴，加大对主产区支持力度，让农 民种粮有合理收益、主产区抓粮有内在动力。坚决守住 18 亿亩耕地 红线，划足划实永久基本农田，切实遏制耕地“非农化”、防止 “非粮化”。加强中低产田改造，新建 1 亿亩高标准农田，新建改 造一批大中型灌区。加大黑土地保护和盐碱地综合利用力度。支持 黄河流域发展节水农业、旱作农业。启动第三次全国土壤普查。加 21 快推进种业振兴，加强农业科技攻关和推广应用，提高农机装备水 平。提升农业气象灾害防控和动植物疫病防治能力。加强生猪产能 调控，抓好畜禽、水产、蔬菜等生产供应，加快发展现代化设施种 养业。支持棉花、甘蔗等生产。保障国家粮食安全各地区都有责 任，粮食调入地区更要稳定粮食生产。各方面要共同努力，装满 “米袋子”、充实“菜篮子”，把 14 亿多中国人的饭碗牢牢端在自 己手中。
We will step up efforts to ensure stable production and sufficient supply of grain and other important agricultural products. We will keep total grain acreage at a stable level, refine the mix of grain crops, strengthen management over the late seeding of wheat on summer-grain farmland, and increase the production of soybeans and other oilseed crops. We will raise the minimum purchase prices of rice and wheat as appropriate. To ensure reasonable returns for grain growers and incentivize major grain-producing areas, we will ensure the provision of agricultural supplies such as chemical fertilizers at stable prices, continue to provide agricultural supply subsidies to grain growers, and step up support for major grain-producing areas.
To ensure the area of farmland remains above the redline of 120 million hectares, we will designate a sufficient amount of good land as permanent basic cropland, and firmly stop any attempts to use cropland for any purpose other than agriculture and specifically grain production. We will step up efforts to upgrade low- and medium-yield cropland, increase the area of high-standard cropland by 6.67 million hectares, and construct or upgrade a number of medium and large irrigated areas. We will intensify conservation of chernozem soil, make comprehensive use of saline-alkali lands, and carry out the third national survey of soils. Support will be given to water-efficient agriculture and dry farming in the Yellow River basin.
We will revitalize the seed industry at a faster pace, redouble efforts to develop and apply scientific and technological breakthroughs in agriculture, and upgrade agricultural machinery and equipment. We will enhance our capacity to prevent and control meteorological disasters affecting agriculture as well as animal and plant diseases. We will see that hog production is better regulated and ensure the production and supply of livestock, poultry and aquatic products and vegetables. Development of modern protected agriculture will be accelerated. We will provide support to boost cotton and sugarcane farming.
All local governments shoulder responsibility for safeguarding China’s food security. Those localities that rely on grain from other areas must do better in keeping their grain output stable. Everyone must work together to ensure that the country’s “rice bag” and “vegetable basket” are well-filled, and that we have a secure food supply for more than 1.4 billion Chinese people.
全面巩固拓展脱贫攻坚成果。完善落实防止返贫监测帮扶机 制，确保不发生规模性返贫。支持脱贫地区发展特色产业，加强劳 务协作、职业技能培训，促进脱贫人口持续增收。强化国家乡村振 兴重点帮扶县帮扶措施，做好易地搬迁后续扶持，深化东西部协 作、定点帮扶和社会力量帮扶，大力实施“万企兴万村”行动，增 强脱贫地区自我发展能力。
We will fully consolidate and build on our achievements in poverty elimination. We will implement better monitoring and assistance mechanisms to prevent people from slipping back into poverty and see that people do not return to impoverishment in large numbers. We will support areas that have been lifted out of poverty in developing distinctive local businesses, and bolster labor collaboration and vocational skills training to help people who are no longer in poverty steadily increase their incomes.
We will enhance the self-development capacity of areas that are no longer in poverty. Stronger support measures will be adopted for key counties receiving assistance for rural revitalization; follow-up support will be given to people who have been relocated from inhospitable areas; collaboration between eastern and western regions and targeted and nongovernmental assistance efforts will be intensified; and the “10,000 private enterprises revitalizing 10,000 villages” initiative will be launched.
扎实稳妥推进农村改革发展。开展好第二轮土地承包到期后再 延长 30 年整县试点。深化供销社、集体产权、集体林权、国有林区 林场、农垦等改革。积极发展新型农村集体经济。加强农村金融服 务，加快发展乡村产业。壮大县域经济。严格规范村庄撤并，保护 传统村落和乡村风貌。启动乡村建设行动，强化规划引领，加强水 电路气信邮等基础设施建设，因地制宜推进农村改厕和污水垃圾处 理。深入开展文明村镇建设。强化农民工工资拖欠治理，支持农民 工就业创业，一定要让广大农民有更多务工增收的渠道。
We will steadily and prudently advance rural reform and development. We will run trials on extending the rural land contracts of whole counties by another 30 years on the expiration of second-round contracts. We will deepen the reform of supply and marketing cooperatives, collective property rights, collective forest tenure, state forestry areas and farms, and state farms. We will actively develop new collective economies in rural areas. We will improve financial services in rural areas to accelerate the development of the rural business sector. We will also expand county economies.
We will apply strict standards to the revocation and amalgamation of villages, protect both traditional villages and the features of our countryside, and enhance the guiding role of rural development plans. We will launch rural initiatives to improve infrastructure, such as water, electricity and gas supplies, roads, and mail and communications services, and upgrade rural toilets and sewage and refuse treatment facilities based on local conditions. We will further cultivate civic virtue in villages and towns. We will work harder to clear wage arrears owed to rural migrant workers, support rural migrant workers in finding jobs and starting businesses, and do everything possible to create more ways for rural people to increase their incomes from nonagricultural work.
(七)扩大高水平对外开放，推动外贸外资平稳发展。充分利用 两个市场两种资源，不断拓展对外经贸合作，以高水平开放促进深 层次改革、推动高质量发展。
- Pursuing higher-standard opening up and promoting stable growth of foreign trade and investment
We will make full use of international and domestic markets and resources, continue to expand international economic cooperation and trade, and push for in-depth reform and high-quality development by promoting high-standard opening up.
多措并举稳定外贸。扩大出口信用保险对中小微外贸企业的覆 盖面，加强出口信贷支持，优化外汇服务，加快出口退税进度，帮 助外贸企业稳订单稳生产。加快发展外贸新业态新模式，充分发挥 跨境电商作用，支持建设一批海外仓。积极扩大优质产品和服务进 口。创新发展服务贸易、数字贸易，推进实施跨境服务贸易负面清 单。深化通关便利化改革，加快国际物流体系建设，助力外贸降成 本、提效率。
We will adopt a package of steps to stabilize foreign trade. We will expand the coverage of export credit insurance for micro, small and medium foreign trade firms, strengthen export credit support, refine foreign exchange services, expedite the process for export rebates, and help foreign trade enterprises receive orders and maintain production. We will move faster to develop new forms and models of foreign trade, give full play to the role of cross-border e-commerce, and support the establishment of a number of overseas warehouses.
We will actively increase imports of quality products and services. We will explore new ways to develop trade in services and digital trade, and implement a negative list for cross-border trade in services. The reform to simplify customs clearance will be deepened, and the building of an international logistic services system will be accelerated to help lower costs and raise efficiency in foreign trade.
积极利用外资。深入实施外资准入负面清单，落实好外资企业 国民待遇。扩大鼓励外商投资范围，支持外资加大中高端制造、研 发、现代服务等领域和中西部、东北地区投资。优化外资促进服 务，推动重大项目加快落地。扎实推进自贸试验区、海南自由贸易 港建设，推动开发区改革创新，提高综合保税区发展水平，增设服 务业扩大开放综合试点。开放的中国大市场，必将为各国企业在华 发展提供更多机遇。
We will make greater use of foreign investment. We will see that the negative list for foreign investment is fully observed and ensure national treatment for all foreign-invested enterprises. We will encourage foreign-invested enterprises to move into a broader range of sectors, and support more foreign investment in medium- and high-end manufacturing, R&D, and modern services, as well as in the central, western and northeastern regions. We will improve services for promoting foreign investment and accelerate the launching of major foreign-funded projects.
We will take solid steps to develop pilot free trade zones and the Hainan Free Trade Port, promote reform and innovation in economic development zones, boost the development of integrated bonded areas, and launch more trials on the extensive opening of the service sector. The vast, open Chinese market is sure to provide even greater business opportunities for foreign enterprises in China.
高质量共建“一带一路”。坚持共商共建共享，巩固互联互通 合作基础，稳步拓展合作新领域。推进西部陆海新通道建设。有序 开展对外投资合作，有效防范海外风险。
We will promote high-quality cooperation under the Belt and Road Initiative. We remain committed to the principle of achieving shared growth through consultation and collaboration. We will, on the basis of consolidating cooperation on enhancing connectivity, move steadily to open up new areas of cooperation.
New land-sea transit routes for the western region will be further developed. We will carry out outbound investment and international cooperation in a well-regulated way, and effectively guard against overseas risks.
深化多双边经贸合作。区域全面经济伙伴关系协定形成了全球 最大自由贸易区，要支持企业用好优惠关税、原产地累积等规则，扩大贸易和投资合作。推动与更多国家和地区商签高标准自贸协 定。坚定维护多边贸易体制，积极参与世贸组织改革。中国愿与世 界各国加强互利合作，实现共赢多赢。
We will deepen multilateral and bilateral economic and trade cooperation. The Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership (RCEP) has created the largest free trade zone in the world. We will encourage enterprises to make good use of preferential tariff treatment, cumulation of origin, and other rules under the RCEP framework to expand cooperation on trade and investment. We will work to negotiate and conclude high-standard free trade agreements with more countries and regions. We will remain firm in upholding the multilateral trade regime and will participate actively in the reform of the World Trade Organization. China is ready to work with all countries to enhance mutually beneficial cooperation and achieve win-win outcomes for all.
- Continuing to Improve the Environment and Promoting Green and Low-Carbon Development
We will work harder to address pollution and protect and restore ecosystems. We will promote development while also reducing emissions, and ensure greater harmony between humanity and nature.
加强生态环境综合治理。深入打好污染防治攻坚战。强化大气 多污染物协同控制和区域协同治理，加大重要河湖、海湾污染整治 力度，持续推进土壤污染防治。加强固体废物和新污染物治理，推 行垃圾分类和减量化、资源化。完善节能节水、废旧物资循环利用 等环保产业支持政策。加强生态环境分区管控，科学开展国土绿 化，统筹山水林田湖草沙系统治理，保护生物多样性，推进以国家 公园为主体的自然保护地体系建设，要让我们生活的家园更绿更 美。
We will improve the environment with a holistic approach. We will work to make solid gains in the battle against pollution. We will take coordinated steps to further control multiple atmospheric pollutants and treat them through coordination among regions. We will take stronger action to treat pollution in major rivers, lakes, and bays, and sustain our progress on preventing and controlling soil pollution. We will step up the treatment of solid waste and new pollutants and implement measures to sort refuse, reduce waste and boost recycling. We will improve policies to support environmental protection industries in conserving water and energy and recycling waste and used materials.
We will adopt a more region-specific approach to environmental management, launch greening programs in a well-conceived manner, and conduct in a coordinated way the conservation of mountain, river, forest, farmland, lake, grassland, and desert ecosystems. We will protect biodiversity and advance the development of the national park-based nature reserve system. With these efforts, we will make our common home greener and more beautiful.
有序推进碳达峰碳中和工作。落实碳达峰行动方案。推动能源 革命，确保能源供应，立足资源禀赋，坚持先立后破、通盘谋划， 推进能源低碳转型。加强煤炭清洁高效利用，有序减量替代，推动 煤电节能降碳改造、灵活性改造、供热改造。推进大型风光电基地 及其配套调节性电源规划建设，加强抽水蓄能电站建设，提升电网 对可再生能源发电的消纳能力。支持生物质能发展。推进绿色低碳 技术研发和推广应用，建设绿色制造和服务体系，推进钢铁、有 色、石化、化工、建材等行业节能降碳，强化交通和建筑节能。坚 决遏制高耗能、高排放、低水平项目盲目发展。提升生态系统碳汇能力。推动能耗“双控”向碳排放总量和强度“双控”转变，完善 减污降碳激励约束政策，发展绿色金融，加快形成绿色低碳生产生 活方式。
We will take well-ordered steps to achieve peak carbon emissions and carbon neutrality. The action plan for peaking carbon emissions will be put into effect. To advance China’s energy revolution and ensure energy supply, we will, based on our resource endowment, push forward the transformation toward low-carbon development, in accordance with overall planning and the principle of establishing the new before abolishing the old. We will work harder to make coal usage cleaner and more efficient, while reducing the use of coal and replacing it with alternative energy sources in a well-ordered way. We will work to upgrade coal-fired power plants to conserve resources, reduce carbon emissions, make operations more flexible, and upgrade heating facilities.
We will advance the planning and construction of large-scale wind and photovoltaic power bases with supporting power sources that are adjustable, develop pumped-storage hydroelectric plants, and boost the capacity of power grids to absorb electricity generated from renewable energy sources. We will support the development of biomass energy. We will promote R&D and application of green and low-carbon technology, and develop green manufacturing and services. We will encourage the steel, non-ferrous metals, petrochemicals, chemicals and building materials industries to enhance energy conservation and reduce carbon emissions, and improve energy efficiency in transportation and buildings.
We are resolved to stop the blind development of energy-intensive projects with high emissions and backward production capacity. We will enhance the carbon absorption capacity of our ecosystems. We will transition from assessing the total amount and intensity of energy consumption to assessing the total amount and intensity of carbon emissions, improve policy incentives for reducing pollution and carbon emissions and policy constraints on such emissions, develop green finance, and promote faster development of green and low-carbon ways of working and living.
- Ensuring and improving the people’s wellbeing and promoting better and new ways of conducting social governance
We will do everything within our capacity to keep enhancing public services and resolve issues that are of common concern to the people.
促进教育公平与质量提升。落实立德树人根本任务。推动义务 教育优质均衡发展和城乡一体化，依据常住人口规模配置教育资 源，保障适龄儿童就近入学，解决好进城务工人员子女就学问题。 全面落实义务教育教师工资待遇，加强乡村教师定向培养、在职培 训与待遇保障。继续做好义务教育阶段减负工作。多渠道增加普惠 性学前教育资源。加强县域普通高中建设。办好特殊教育、继续教 育、专门教育，支持和规范民办教育发展。提升国家通用语言文字 普及程度和质量。发展现代职业教育，改善职业教育办学条件，完 善产教融合办学体制，增强职业教育适应性。推进高等教育内涵式 发展，优化高等教育布局，分类建设一流大学和一流学科，加快培 养理工农医类专业紧缺人才，支持中西部高等教育发展。高校招生 继续加大对中西部和农村地区倾斜力度。加强师德师风建设。健全 学校家庭社会协同育人机制。发展在线教育。完善终身学习体系。 倡导全社会尊师重教。我国有 2.9 亿在校学生，要坚持把教育这个 关乎千家万户和中华民族未来的大事办好。
We will improve the fairness and quality of education. We will ensure that education performs its fundamental mission of fostering virtue. We will promote high-quality, well-balanced development and urban-rural integration of compulsory education. We will allocate educational resources according to the size of residential population, see that school-age children can enroll in nearby schools, and ensure that all children of rural migrant workers in cities have access to education. We will ensure that compulsory education teachers receive their pay packages in full and strengthen targeted training programs, on-the-job training, and salary guarantees for rural teachers. We will continue our efforts to reduce the burden on students in compulsory education.
We will increase resources for public-interest preschool education via multiple channels and promote the development of regular county high schools. We will provide quality special needs education, continuing education, and specialized education and support and regulate the development of private schools. We will promote general and proficient use of standard spoken and written Chinese. To develop modern vocational education, we will upgrade vocational schools, refine the mechanism for integrating vocational education with industry, and enhance the adaptability of vocational education.
We will develop higher education to its full potential and optimize its layout. We will promote the development of world-class universities and academic disciplines on a categorized basis, move faster to train professionals we are badly lacking in the fields of science, engineering, agriculture and medicine, and support the development of higher education in central and western regions. Universities and colleges will continue to enroll greater numbers of students from central and western regions and rural areas.
Steps will be taken to strengthen professional ethics among teachers. A mechanism will be established whereby our schools, families and whole society work together to advance education. We will promote online education, improve the lifelong learning system, and encourage public respect for teachers and public support for education.
There are 290 million students in schools and universities in China. We must ensure that education, which is important to millions of families and the future of our nation, is well-run.
提高医疗卫生服务能力。居民医保和基本公共卫生服务经费人 均财政补助标准分别再提高 30 元和 5 元，推动基本医保省级统筹。 推进药品和高值医用耗材集中带量采购，确保生产供应。强化药品 疫苗质量安全监管。深化医保支付方式改革，加强医保基金监管。 完善跨省异地就医直接结算办法，实现全国医保用药范围基本统 一。坚持预防为主，加强健康教育和健康管理，深入推进健康中国 行动。逐步提高心脑血管病、癌症等慢性病和肺结核、肝炎等传染 病防治服务保障水平，加强罕见病研究和用药保障。健全疾病预防 控制网络，促进医防协同，加强公共卫生队伍建设，提高重大疫情 监测预警、流调溯源和应急处置能力。推动公立医院综合改革和高 质量发展。规范医疗机构收费和服务，继续帮扶因疫情遇困的医疗 机构，补齐妇幼儿科、精神卫生、老年医学等服务短板。坚持中西 医并重，加大中医药振兴发展支持力度，推进中医药综合改革。落 实和完善乡村医生待遇保障与激励政策。持续推进分级诊疗和优化 就医秩序，加快建设国家、省级区域医疗中心，推动优质医疗资源 向市县延伸，提升基层防病治病能力，使群众就近得到更好医疗卫 生服务。
We will improve medical and health services. Government subsidies for basic medical insurance for rural and non-working urban residents will be increased by an average of 30 yuan per person, and subsidies for basic public health services will be increased by an average of 5 yuan per person. The unified management of basic medical insurance funds will be advanced at the provincial level. We will carry out bulk government purchases for more medicines and high-value medical consumables and ensure both the production and supply of these items.
We will intensify supervision over the quality and safety of drugs and vaccines. Reform of medical insurance payments under the medical insurance scheme will be deepened, and medical insurance funds will be placed under strict oversight. We will improve the policy on directly settling medical expenses incurred outside of a patient’s home province, and ensure that the list of medicines covered by medical insurance is largely consistent nationwide.
Taking prevention as a priority, we will strengthen health education and management and advance the Healthy China initiative. We will steadily enhance services for the prevention and treatment of chronic illnesses such as cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases and cancer as well as infectious diseases such as tuberculosis and hepatitis. We will also strengthen research of rare diseases and better ensure the supply of medicines for these. We will improve the disease prevention and control network, increase collaboration between disease control agencies and hospitals, make greater efforts to train public health personnel, and improve our capabilities for monitoring major epidemics and conducting early warning, epidemiological investigation and tracing, and emergency response.
We will promote the comprehensive reform and high-quality development of public hospitals, see that the charges collected by medical institutions and the services they offer are well-regulated, continue to assist medical institutions hit by Covid-19, and shore up weak links in services such as maternal and child healthcare, pediatrics, mental health and medical care for the elderly. We will promote development of both traditional Chinese medicine and Western medicine, and give greater support to initiatives for vitalizing and developing traditional Chinese medicine and advance its all-around reform. We will implement and refine policies for ensuring salary payments and providing incentives for rural doctors.
We will continue to promote tiered diagnosis and treatment and sound medical treatment procedures, accelerate the development of regional medical centers at the national and provincial levels, channel more high-quality medical resources to the prefecture and county levels, enhance community-level disease prevention and treatment capacities, and ensure that people can access higher-quality medical and health services close to home.
加强社会保障和服务。稳步实施企业职工基本养老保险全国统 筹，适当提高退休人员基本养老金和城乡居民基础养老金标准，确 保按时足额发放。继续规范发展第三支柱养老保险。加快推进工伤 和失业保险省级统筹。做好军人军属、退役军人和其他优抚对象优 待抚恤工作。积极应对人口老龄化，加快构建居家社区机构相协调、医养康养相结合的养老服务体系。优化城乡养老服务供给，支 持社会力量提供日间照料、助餐助洁、康复护理等服务，稳步推进 长期护理保险制度试点，鼓励发展农村互助式养老服务，创新发展 老年教育，推动老龄事业和产业高质量发展。完善三孩生育政策配 套措施，将 3 岁以下婴幼儿照护费用纳入个人所得税专项附加扣 除，多渠道发展普惠托育服务，减轻家庭生育、养育、教育负担。 强化未成年人保护和心理健康教育。提升残疾预防和康复服务水 平。加强民生兜底保障和遇困群众救助，努力做到应保尽保、应助 尽助。
We will improve social security and social services. We will work steadily toward national unified management of basic old-age insurance funds for enterprise employees, appropriately raise the basic pensions for retirees and basic old-age benefits for rural and non-working urban residents, and ensure that these payments are made on time and in full. We will continue to regulate development of third-pillar pension plans. We will move faster to promote unified management of workers’ compensation funds and unemployment insurance funds at the provincial level. We will see that service members and their families, ex-service members, and other entitled groups receive the benefits and subsidies they are entitled to.
We will proactively respond to population aging and worker faster to build a system of domestic, community and institutional elderly care services to meet different medical and health care needs. We will improve elderly care in urban and rural areas, support private entities in providing elderly care services such as day care, assistance with meals and cleaning, and rehabilitation care, steadily advance trials for long-term care insurance schemes, and encourage mutual-assistance elderly care in rural areas. We will explore new ways of developing senior citizen education, and promote high-quality development of both elderly care programs and the elderly care sector.
We will improve the supporting measures for the three-child policy, make care expenses for children under three part of the special additional deductions for individual income tax, and develop public-interest childcare services through multiple channels, to reduce the costs of giving birth and raising and educating children. We will step up protection of minors and improve mental health education. We will strengthen disability prevention, and provide better rehabilitation services for people with disabilities. We will do more to meet the people’s basic needs, strengthen assistance to people in difficulty, and ensure that our social safety net provides support and assistance to everyone who needs it.
继续保障好群众住房需求。坚持房子是用来住的、不是用来炒 的定位，探索新的发展模式，坚持租购并举，加快发展长租房市 场，推进保障性住房建设，支持商品房市场更好满足购房者的合理 住房需求，稳地价、稳房价、稳预期，因城施策促进房地产业良性 循环和健康发展。
We will continue to meet people’s housing needs. Guided by the principle that houses are for living in, not for speculation, we will explore new models for housing development and encourage both housing rentals and purchases. We will move faster to develop the long-term rental market, promote the construction of government-subsidized housing, and support the commodity housing market in better meeting the reasonable needs of homebuyers. We will keep land costs, housing prices and market expectations stable, and adopt city-specific measures to facilitate positive circulation and sound development in the real estate sector.
丰富人民群众精神文化生活。培育和践行社会主义核心价值 观，深化群众性精神文明创建。繁荣新闻出版、广播影视、文学艺 术、哲学社会科学和档案等事业。深入推进全民阅读。加强和创新 互联网内容建设，深化网络生态治理。推进公共文化数字化建设， 促进基层文化设施布局优化和资源共享，扩大优质文化产品和服务 供给，支持文化产业发展。传承弘扬中华优秀传统文化，加强文物 古籍保护利用和非物质文化遗产保护传承，推进国家文化公园建设。用好北京冬奥会、冬残奥会遗产，发展冰雪运动和冰雪产业。 建设群众身边的体育场地设施，促进全民健身蔚然成风。
We will enrich people’s intellectual and cultural lives. We will promote and observe the core socialist values and carry out public initiatives to promote cultural and ethical advancement. We will see that the press and publishing, radio, film and television, literature and art, philosophy, social sciences, and archiving all flourish. A love of reading will continue to be fostered among our people. We will develop new ways to strengthen the development of online content and improve cyberspace governance.
We will develop digital public cultural services, improve the layout of cultural facilities and promote the sharing of cultural resources at the community level, increase the supply of quality cultural products and services, and support the development of cultural industries. We will carry forward fine traditional Chinese culture, protect and use cultural artifacts and ancient manuscripts more effectively, better preserve and pass on our intangible cultural heritage, and build national cultural parks.
We will make the most of the legacy of the Beijing 2022 Winter Olympics and Paralympics, and promote the development of ice and snow sports and the winter economy. We will see that more sports venues and facilities are built close to people’s homes and promote extensive public fitness activities.
推进社会治理共建共治共享。促进人民安居乐业、社会安定有 序。创新和完善基层社会治理，强化社区服务功能，加强社会动员 体系建设，提升基层治理能力。健全社会信用体系。发展社会工 作，支持社会组织、人道救助、志愿服务、公益慈善等健康发展。 严厉打击拐卖、收买妇女儿童犯罪行为，坚决保障妇女儿童合法权 益。健全老年人、残疾人关爱服务体系。完善信访制度，加强矛盾 纠纷排查化解，依法及时解决群众合理诉求。重视社会心理服务。 强化公共法律服务和法律援助。提高防灾减灾救灾和应急救援能 力，做好洪涝干旱、森林草原火灾、地质灾害、地震等防御和气象 服务。严格食品全链条质量安全监管。落实安全生产责任和管理制 度，深入开展安全生产专项整治三年行动，有效遏制重特大事故发 生。推进国家安全体系和能力建设。强化网络安全、数据安全和个 人信息保护。加强社会治安综合治理，推动扫黑除恶常态化，坚决 防范和打击各类违法犯罪，建设更高水平的平安中国、法治中国。
We will advance social governance based on collaboration, participation, and common gains. We will work to ensure that our people enjoy peace and contentment in work and life and that there is stability and order in society. We will develop new approaches to improving social governance at the primary level, strengthen the service provision functions of communities, develop a system for mobilizing all sectors of society, and enhance primary-level governance capacity. We will further improve the social credit system.
We will develop social work, and support the healthy development of social organizations, humanitarian assistance, volunteer services, public welfare and charitable initiatives, and other related activities. We will crack down hard on the trafficking and buying of women and children and protect their lawful rights and interests. The system for supporting and caring for senior citizens and people with disabilities will also be improved.
We will improve the system for handling public complaints, identify and defuse social problems, and see that the justified demands of the public are promptly addressed in accordance with the law. We will attach great importance to public psychological and counseling services. Better public legal services and legal aid will be provided.
We will enhance disaster prevention, mitigation and relief capabilities, as well as emergency rescue capacity, better protect against floods, droughts, forest and grassland fires, geological disasters and earthquakes, and provide quality meteorological services. We will tighten supervision over quality and safety across the entire food chain. We will implement the responsibility and management systems for workplace safety, carry out a three-year drive to promote workplace safety, and take effective steps to prevent major and serious accidents.
We will advance the building of our national security system and capacity, and strengthen cyber security, data security and protection of personal information. We will take a full range of steps to maintain law and order, continue the ongoing efforts to combat organized crime and root out local criminal gangs, and firmly prevent and crack down on illegal and criminal activities of all types, so as to reach a higher level in building a peaceful China and advancing the rule of law in China.
面对新的形势和任务，各级政府要全面贯彻落实党的十九大和 十九届历次全会精神，深刻认识“两个确立”的决定性意义，增强 “四个意识”、坚定“四个自信”、做到“两个维护”，自觉在思 想上政治上行动上同以习近平同志为核心的党中央保持高度一致。 坚持依法行政，深化政务公开，加强法治政府建设。依法接受同级人大及其常委会的监督，自觉接受人民政协的民主监督，主动接受 社会和舆论监督。加强审计监督、统计监督。支持工会、共青团、 妇联等群团组织更好发挥作用。坚持不懈推进全面从严治党，深入 开展党风廉政建设和反腐败斗争。加强廉洁政府建设。巩固党史学 习教育成果。政府工作人员要自觉接受法律监督、监察监督和人民 监督，始终把人民放在心中最高位置，无愧于人民公仆称号。
Facing new developments and tasks, we in government at all levels must fully act on the guiding principles from the Party’s 19th National Congress and the plenary sessions of the 19th Party Central Committee. We should acquire a deep understanding of the decisive significance of the establishment of both Comrade Xi Jinping’s core position on the Party Central Committee and in the Party as a whole and the guiding role of Xi Jinping Thought on Socialism with Chinese Characteristics for a New Era, and boost our consciousness of the need to maintain political integrity, think in big-picture terms, follow the leadership core, and keep in alignment with the central Party leadership. We should stay confident in the path, the theory, the system, and the culture of socialism with Chinese characteristics. We should firmly uphold Comrade Xi Jinping’s core position on the Party Central Committee and in the Party as a whole and uphold the Central Committee’s authority and its centralized, unified leadership. We should closely follow the Party Central Committee with Comrade Xi Jinping at its core in thinking, stance, and action.
We remain committed to law-based government administration, to making the affairs of government more transparent, and to building a government based on the rule of law.
Our government will, in compliance with the law, accept the oversight of people’s congresses and their standing committees at the corresponding level. We will consciously accept democratic oversight from the CPPCC. And we will readily commit ourselves to public oversight and oversight through public opinion. Audit-based and statistics-based oversight will also be strengthened. We will support trade unions, Communist Youth League organizations, women’s federations, and other people’s organizations in better fulfilling their roles.
We will keep working tirelessly to ensure full and strict Party self-governance and do more to improve Party conduct, build integrity and prevent corruption. We will work harder to build a government of integrity. What we have gained from the initiatives to study the history of the CPC will be consolidated. All of us in government must readily accept the oversight of the law, supervisory bodies and the people, always regard the people’s interests as our highest concern, and truly serve as public servants of the people.
应对困难和挑战，各级政府及其工作人员必须恪尽职守、勤政 为民，凝心聚力抓发展、保民生。坚持发展是第一要务，必须全面 落实新发展理念，推动高质量发展。要锲而不舍落实中央八项规定 精神，驰而不息纠治“四风”特别是形式主义、官僚主义，坚决反 对敷衍应付、推诿扯皮，坚决纠治任性用权、工作方法简单粗暴。 要始终把人民群众安危冷暖放在心上，察实情、办实事、求实效， 及时回应民生关切，坚决严肃处理漠视群众合法权益的严重失职失 责问题。要充分发挥中央和地方两个积极性，尊重人民群众首创精 神，防止政策执行“一刀切”、层层加码，持续为基层减负。健全 激励和保护机制，支持广大干部敢担当、善作为。全国上下毕力同 心、苦干实干，就一定能创造新的发展业绩。
In the face of difficulties and challenges, it is vital that all of us in governments at all levels perform our duties, work diligently for the people, and make concerted efforts to promote development and ensure the public wellbeing. Development remains the top priority for China, and we must fully act on the new development philosophy to pursue high-quality development.
We will continue to steadfastly implement the central Party leadership’s eight-point decision on improving conduct and work ceaselessly to oppose pointless formalities, bureaucratism, hedonism and extravagance, with a particular focus on the first two problems. We will firmly oppose perfunctory attitudes and buck passing in government, and take strong steps to correct any abuse of power and any simplistic or unmannerly way of conducting work.
We must always keep in mind the people’s security and wellbeing. We will work to understand the realities, take specific steps, and deliver solid outcomes to promptly respond to the people’s concerns. And we will take strong measures against any dereliction of duty owing to disregard for the people’s legitimate rights and interests.
We will keep the central and local governments fully motivated and respect the pioneering spirit of the people. We will avoid a one-size-fits-all approach, refrain from making local governments take excessive policy steps, and continue easing the burdens on those working on the ground.
We will improve the mechanisms for providing incentives and protections to support officials who readily take responsibility and ably perform their duties. As long as all of us throughout the country are working as one to the best of our abilities, we will undoubtedly accomplish new achievements in pursuing development.
我们要坚持和完善民族区域自治制度，以铸牢中华民族共同体 意识为主线，促进各民族交往交流交融，推动民族地区加快现代化 建设步伐。坚持党的宗教工作基本方针，坚持我国宗教的中国化方 向，积极引导宗教与社会主义社会相适应。全面贯彻党的侨务政策，维护海外侨胞和归侨侨眷合法权益，激励海内外中华儿女携手 共创新的辉煌。
We will continue to practice and improve the system of regional ethnic autonomy, focus on forging a strong sense of community among the Chinese people, promote interactions, exchanges and integration among all ethnic groups, and speed up the modernization drive in ethnic minority regions.
We will adhere to the Party’s basic policy on religious affairs, follow the principle that religions in China must be Chinese in orientation, and provide active guidance to religions so they can adapt themselves to socialist society.
We will fully implement the Party’s policy on overseas Chinese affairs, protect the lawful rights and interests of Chinese nationals residing abroad, returned Chinese, and relatives of overseas Chinese nationals residing in China, and encourage all the sons and daughters of the Chinese nation, both at home and abroad, to work together in creating new glories for our nation.
过去一年，国防和军队建设取得重大进展，实现“十四五”良 好开局。新的一年，要深入贯彻习近平强军思想，贯彻新时代军事 战略方针，扣牢建军一百年奋斗目标，全面加强党的领导和党的建 设，全面深化练兵备战，坚定灵活开展军事斗争，捍卫国家主权、 安全、发展利益。加快现代军事物流体系、军队现代资产管理体系 建设，构建武器装备现代化管理体系，持续深化国防和军队改革， 加强国防科技创新，深入实施新时代人才强军战略，推进依法治 军、从严治军，推动军队高质量发展。优化国防科技工业布局。完 成国防动员体制改革，加强全民国防教育。各级政府要大力支持国 防和军队建设，深入开展“双拥”活动，让军政军民团结坚如磐 石。
Last year, we made major strides in strengthening national defense and the armed forces, getting off to a good start in this endeavor in the 14th Five-Year Plan period. This year, we will fully implement Xi Jinping’s thinking on strengthening the armed forces and the military strategy for the new era, work toward the goals for the centenary of the People’s Liberation Army in 2027, and strengthen Party leadership and Party building in all aspects of the military. We will enhance military training and combat readiness, stay firm and flexible in carrying out military struggle, and safeguard China’s sovereignty, security and development interests.
We will move faster to modernize the military’s logistics and asset management systems, and build a modern weaponry and equipment management system. We will continue the reform of national defense and the military and step up innovations in defense science and technology. We will implement the strategy of strengthening the military by training competent personnel in the new era, run the military in accordance with the law and strict discipline, and promote high-quality development of the military. We will improve the layout of defense science, technology and industry.
We will finish reforming the defense mobilization system and raise public awareness of national defense. Government at all levels must give strong support to the development of national defense and the armed forces, and conduct extensive activities to promote mutual support between civilian sectors and the military, so that the unity between the military and government and between the military and the people will remain rock solid.
我们要继续全面准确、坚定不移贯彻“一国两制”、“港人治 港”、“澳人治澳”、高度自治的方针，落实中央对特别行政区全 面管治权，坚定落实“爱国者治港”、“爱国者治澳”。全力支持 特别行政区政府依法施政。支持港澳防控疫情、发展经济、改善民 生，更好融入国家发展大局，保持香港、澳门长期繁荣稳定。
We will maintain our firm commitment to the letter and spirit of the policy of One Country, Two Systems, under which the people of Hong Kong administer Hong Kong, and the people of Macao administer Macao, both with a high degree of autonomy. We will ensure that the central government exercises overall jurisdiction over the two special administrative regions, and firmly uphold the principle that Hong Kong and Macao should be governed by patriots. We will fully support the governments of these two special administrative regions in exercising law-based governance. We will help Hong Kong and Macao respond to Covid-19, develop their economies, and improve the wellbeing of their people, see that these two regions better integrate themselves into the country’s overall development, and maintain the long-term prosperity and stability of Hong Kong and Macao.
我们要坚持对台工作大政方针，贯彻新时代党解决台湾问题的 总体方略，坚持一个中国原则和“九二共识”，推进两岸关系和平 30 发展和祖国统一。坚决反对“台独”分裂行径，坚决反对外部势力 干涉。两岸同胞要和衷共济，共创民族复兴的光荣伟业。
We remain committed to the major principles and policies on work related to Taiwan, to the Party’s overall policy for resolving the Taiwan question in the new era, and to the one-China principle and the 1992 Consensus. We will advance the peaceful growth of relations across the Taiwan Strait and the reunification of China. We firmly oppose any separatist activities seeking “Taiwan independence” and firmly oppose foreign interference. All of us, Chinese on both sides of the Taiwan Strait, should come together to advance the great and glorious cause of China’s rejuvenation.
我们要坚持独立自主的和平外交政策，坚定不移走和平发展道 路，推动建设新型国际关系，推动构建人类命运共同体。推进落实 全球发展倡议，弘扬全人类共同价值。中国始终是世界和平的建设 者、全球发展的贡献者、国际秩序的维护者，愿同国际社会一道， 为促进世界和平稳定与发展繁荣作出新的更大贡献!
China will continue to pursue an independent foreign policy of peace, stay on the path of peaceful development, work for a new type of international relations, and endeavor to build a human community with a shared future. We will pursue the Global Development Initiative and promote the shared values of all humanity. China will always work to safeguard world peace, contribute to global development, and preserve international order. We stand ready to work with all others in the international community to make new and greater contributions to promoting world peace, stability, development and prosperity.
中国的发展从来都是在应对挑战中前进的，中国人民有战胜任 何艰难险阻的勇气、智慧和力量。我们要更加紧密地团结在以习近 平同志为核心的党中央周围，高举中国特色社会主义伟大旗帜，以 习近平新时代中国特色社会主义思想为指导，攻坚克难，砥砺奋 进，努力完成全年目标任务，以实际行动迎接党的二十大胜利召 开，为把我国建设成为富强民主文明和谐美丽的社会主义现代化强 国、实现中华民族伟大复兴的中国梦不懈奋斗!
It has always been in the course of meeting challenges that China has advanced its development. We the Chinese people have the courage, vision and strength to overcome any obstacle or difficulty. We must rally more closely around the CPC Central Committee with Comrade Xi Jinping at its core, hold high the banner of socialism with Chinese characteristics, and follow the guidance of Xi Jinping Thought on Socialism with Chinese Characteristics for a New Era.
We will meet challenges squarely, forge ahead determinedly, work hard to fulfill this year’s goals and tasks, set the stage for the 20th National Congress of the CPC with concrete actions, and continue working tirelessly to build our country into a great modern socialist country that is prosperous, strong, democratic, culturally advanced, harmonious, and beautiful, and to realize the Chinese Dream of national rejuvenation.